The Muslims of Makkah had an utmost desire to perform Hajj and Umrah. However, the circumstances did not help their situation and they have to left Makkah and migrate towards Madina because of the troublesome situations created by the non- believers and their clans. Makkah was surrounded by the Arabs who were indulged in the worshipping of idols and were not ready to accept the truth and brightness of Islam. Therefore, Prophet Muhammad SAWW and Muslims flee in 622 from Makkah and made Madina as their second home. The people of Madina (Ansaar) welcomed their Makkan brothers and sisters all by their hearts and shared all of what they have.
Prophet Muhammad SAWW already knew the strong desire of Muslims to visit Makkah and perform Umrah. Of course they were also desperate to see their homeland. In 628, Prophet Muhammad SAWW finally made the decision to step out form Madina and perform Umrah. He SAWW had about 1400 people along with him. When Makkans heard about the march of Prophet Muhammad SAWW along with that number of Muslims, they were concerned that the Muslims might have the intention to attack Makkah and non- believers. So, when they reached outskirts of Makkah, the Prophet Muhammad SAWW sent an emissary to the Makkans to clear the things out. He SAWW did not want to have confusions in minds of the non- believers regarding the trip of Muslims. He SAWW wanted to do that in order to erase any misconception because Muslims sought to reach Makkah for a very Holy purpose and wanted to have a peace agreement for the betterment of both parties.
The non- believers after receiving the emissary were thoughtful and they finally decided to not permit Muslims to enter inside the city. Muslims were not allowed to perform minor pilgrimage (Umrah) that year but were asked to come to next year for the purpose. A treaty; an agreement was signed between Muslims and non- believers in regards to visit Makkah for minor Hajj. The agreement between the two parties is referred as “Treaty of Hudaybiah” in the history.
This treaty had numerous points regarding a peaceful living for both Muslims and non- believers. The treaty was signed for 10 years as a peace maintaining agreement between the two clans. Muslims were not allowed to enter inside Makkah for the performance of Hajj and have to go back that year but it was suggested that the Muslims will come next year for the purpose, non- believers will clear the path so that the Muslims could perform Hajj and Umrah piecefully. The treaty was established in order to avoid any bloodshed form both sides but it was dissolved after two years when one of the tribes allied with the Makkans and attacked a tribe allied with the Muslims and killed some of its members. As the main purpose and point of the treaty was to prevent bloodshed, so there was no reason to pursue the contract after the killings.
At that time, the Muslims had become a formidable force and so in 630 Prophet Muhammad decided to attack Makkah along with the suggestions of companions and of course by the will of Allah Almighty. He SAWW took an army of 10000 towards Makkah and prepared the Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rabi al Ansari in the month of December to turn away the concentration from his objective of belligerent Makkah. He SAWW led the troop of Muslims and dispatched 8 of his men to outbreak a pageant passing during Edam. During this voyage one of the Muslim was killed accidentally by another Muslim. The sacred ayah of the Holy Quran 4: 94 was revealed in accordance to that incident emphasizing on the fact that the Muslims have to be more careful when fighting in the way of Allah so that the chance of accidental killing can be reduced to the least.
On arrival of Muslims at Makkah, the leaders of Quraysh got an idea that they were not able to fight against Muslims so the leaders of the non- believer clans surrendered. They were terrified about the impending conquest of theirs. However, Prophet Muhammad SAWW was a merciful person and in accordance to his personality he claimed forgiveness for all of the ones who had no longer wished to fight against Muslims. After entering and succeeding Makkah, he SAWW said;
“This day no accusation shall be on you. Allah Almighty will pardon you; He SWT is the Most Merciful of the Merciful. You can go away.”
Prophet Muhammad SAWW forgave even the most ardent foes of Islam and Muslims in order to establish a safe and peaceful sanctuary to live. Many of the people who were afraid about their end by punishment were astonish by the statement of the Last Messenger SAWW. Some of them were so impressed and over whelmed by the broadness of the religion that they became Muslims. If we take a look then only a thing made a conquest full of terror, horror and bloodshed into a merciful, peaceful and a bloodless victory and that was the mercifulness of Prophet Muhammad SAWW. By his this gesture, the years of warfare were ended and a calmness was made up between Muslims and non- believers.
This victory of Muslims is known as “Succession of Makkah” and even for today is an exemplary case to wind up a conflict without any bloodshed. Prophet Muhammad SAWW could have taken revenge in accordance to the Arab tradition and also taking revenge in equal intensity is allowed by the religion but he SAWW decided to forgave the guilty. This conflict was a definite incident in the history of Islam because due to it Islam was established in Arabian Peninsula and it was the beginning of spreading the light of Islam. it was after the victory of Makkah hat Islam become a major world religion.